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                        葉劍英與解放軍首次聯合作戰大演習
                        來源:《黨史博覽》2018年第4期  作者:許忠敬  點擊次數:2530
                        葉劍英與解放軍首次聯合作戰大演習

                        1955年11月,葉劍英同劉少奇等乘快艇視察旅大海防。前排右起:葉劍英、劉少奇;后排右起:楊尚昆、武元甲、賀龍、鄧小平

                        1955年冬,為了探索現代條件下各軍兵種聯合作戰的戰法,我軍在遼東半島地區舉行了一次大規模的抗登陸戰役演習。時任訓練總監部代部長的葉劍英元帥,擔任演習的總導演,具體組織和指揮這次大演習,為探索我軍現代條件下聯合作戰方法和訓練方法,作出了卓越的貢獻。

                        當時,我作為訓練總監部的一名參謀人員,參加了這次演習,并多次聆聽葉帥的講話,開闊了視野,增長了知識,受到了熏陶,勝于接受一次諸軍兵種聯合作戰理論和演練的培訓。現追述這段珍貴歷史,以抒緬懷葉帥之情。

                         

                        ■探討現代條件下我軍戰法的奠基人■

                        1953727日,朝鮮戰爭停戰。我軍在贏得抗美援朝戰爭勝利之后,轉入相對和平的環境,有些人滋生了滿足于已有經驗、不思進取的情緒。而當時美、蘇等國則在大力發展以原子武器為主導的現代武器,并大力研究與之相適應的新戰法。針對這種情況,毛澤東主席號召:“開展正規訓練,迅速提高人民解放軍現代作戰能力。”為此,葉帥明確指出:“未來戰爭,一旦爆發,可以預想,同我們作戰的將是擁有現代化武器裝備的敵人,我們都必然要在敵人的原子彈、導彈、氫彈、化學細菌武器及其他武器的殺傷、破壞和威脅之下進行戰爭。所以,裝備改變了,作戰的方法也要隨著改變,我們的軍事訓練不能不密切地結合著這些新的變化來進行。”

                        葉帥所講的這些道理,完全符合馬克思主義和毛澤東思想的原理。武器裝備改變了,必然影響到作戰方法,作戰方法改變了,必然影響到軍事訓練,應該重視武器裝備和軍事學術的發展,應該借鑒外軍的先進經驗,發展自己的戰法。這個道理并不難懂,但是,在剛剛打敗國內外強大敵人的我軍面前,在一群身經百戰的將士面前,在一群剛從硝煙彌漫的戰火中走出來的英雄面前,要他們承認自己的經驗不夠用了,應該借鑒外軍的經驗,學習新的知識,跟上時代的步伐,并非輕而易舉。

                        為了教育全軍指戰員學習新的知識,探討新的戰法,改進部隊訓練和院校教學,當時葉帥在多種場合力主學習現代知識,并身體力行探討新的戰法。時代在發展,科學在進步,當今世界已進入高技術條件下的戰爭時代。回顧葉帥60多年前的教誨,我們不禁肅然起敬,葉帥不愧是探討我軍現代作戰方法的先驅和奠基人。

                         

                        ■聯合作戰大演習的籌劃者■

                        19554月,葉帥主持中央軍委訓練總監部的工作后,主動籌劃各級聯合作戰演練。當時,我軍的海、空軍以及陸軍的各兵種都處于初建時期,剛開始按統一的計劃進行正規訓練,不僅沒有各軍兵種聯合作戰的戰役實踐,也缺乏實施聯合演練的經驗。為了向全軍作示范,在葉帥的周密籌劃下,中央軍委決定于1955年冬,在遼東半島及其附近海域舉行有諸軍兵種參加的大規模抗登陸戰役演習。

                        遼東半島東瀕黃海并與朝鮮接壤,西臨渤海。在這個半島上坐落著丹東、大連、營口等濱海城市。從地理位置看,它既是我國東北的門戶,也是華北的屏障,與山東半島遙相呼應,構成兩扇拱衛首都北京的大門。守衛遼東半島,具有十分重要的戰略意義,是毛澤東主席和中央軍委關注的防衛重點,所以決定在此擺兵布陣進行演練。參演的兵力,有陸軍、空軍、海軍,大型武器裝備有上百艘艦艇、數百架飛機、幾百輛坦克和裝甲車、上千門火炮,以及數千臺各型車輛。正式演習于10月初開始,歷時十幾個晝夜。參加演習的部隊,從兵團領率機關到基層單位,均齊裝滿員,按作戰編組展開于遼東半島及其附近海域,依照總導演部的號令進行工作和“戰斗”:雷達開機搜索、電臺保持聯絡、艦艇在海上游弋、軍機在空中飛行、戰車在奔馳、火炮在轟鳴、指揮員在運籌帷幄、戰斗員在沖鋒陷陣、保障人員在搶修搶救等,完全模擬實戰進行。演習的主要內容是,定下戰役決心,作出戰役部署,組織戰役協同,抗擊敵原子武器和化學武器襲擊,抗擊敵立體登陸,實施戰役反突擊等課題。

                        通過這次演習,檢驗了各軍兵種的建設和訓練情況,培養了干部,鍛煉了部隊,取得了組織指揮諸軍兵種聯合行動的經驗,也發現了一些亟待解決的問題,促進了戰備工作的落實。并且通過公開報道和宣傳,鼓舞了全國軍民,震懾了國內外敵人,展示了國威軍威。當時的美國《紐約時報》曾驚呼:中國共產黨的軍隊已由以步兵為主的陸軍,發展成為陸海空齊備的現代化軍隊,成為世界第三軍事強國,展現了對美國的挑戰能力。

                         

                        ■文武兼備的總導演■

                        為了組織好這次大演習,葉帥傾注了極大的精力。他除閱讀有關理論著述和文獻資料外,在夏、秋、冬三季,還多次往返于北京、沈陽、遼東半島等地,現場勘察,征詢意見,擬制方案,并主持了由各大軍區、各軍兵種主要負責人參加的戰役法集訓,給搞好演習做了理論準備。經他提議,中央軍委任命總參謀長粟裕大將、副總參謀長兼軍事工程學院院長陳賡大將、總政治部副主任甘泗淇上將、訓練總監部副部長蕭克上將、沈陽軍區司令員鄧華上將等為副總導演,任命總后勤部和各軍兵種的負責人洪學智上將、許光達大將、陳士榘上將、王秉璋空軍中將、周希漢海軍中將等為助理導演——這是一個名將云集的導演班子。

                        這次演習,既是對我軍正規化建設和統一訓練成果的檢驗,更是對在敵人使用核武器和化學武器條件下,諸軍兵種聯合作戰理論的探索。黨和國家領導人非常重視,毛澤東主席親自審批演習計劃和任命總導演部組成人員。劉少奇、周恩來、鄧小平、彭德懷、賀龍、陳毅、聶榮臻等黨政軍領導人,親臨現場觀摩,還組織了全軍高級將領和高級軍事院校的學員見學。同時,邀請蘇聯、朝鮮、越南、蒙古等國軍事代表團參觀。這次演習之所以能夠搞得如此有聲勢、有成效,應該說與葉帥的積極倡導和精心籌劃密不可分。

                        作為總導演,葉帥夜以繼日地工作,對身邊的工作人員言傳身教。在演習中常常在野外就餐,在火車廂里住宿。面對導演部各種不同意見的爭論,葉帥總是在兼聽各位副總導演、助理導演以及蘇聯顧問意見的基礎上,集思廣益,及時作出決斷,使工作有所遵循。對于各部門起草的導演文書,葉帥都及時作出批改簽發,確保導演部能夠高效率地運行。導演部的工作人員都為能在這樣一位文武兼備的“總導”手下工作而感到幸運。

                        在葉帥的精心導演下,這次諸軍兵種大規模抗登陸聯合作戰演習,進行得有聲有色,緊張激烈,有條不紊,受到了在現場觀摩的劉少奇、周恩來、鄧小平等黨和國家領導人和各位老帥的贊揚,贏得了外國軍事代表團的好評。參演部隊的廣大指戰員和前來見學的全軍干部普遍反映,通過這次演習,學到了知識,開闊了視野,為進一步發揚我軍優良傳統,運用新的經驗,探討新的戰法,打下了良好基礎。

                        回顧新中國成立之初的這次諸軍兵種大規模抗登陸聯合作戰演習,葉帥作為探討我軍現代戰法先驅的形象,將永遠銘刻在我們的心中。他倡導探討現代條件下戰法的精神,更值得我們永遠繼承和發揚。

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