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                        新中國成立初期中越關系片斷追述(上)
                        來源:《黨史博覽》2012年第7期  作者:李家忠  點擊次數:1195

                         

                        2012年是中越建交62周年。中越兩國是近鄰,中越友誼是毛澤東、劉少奇、周恩來和胡志明等兩國老一輩革命家親手培育的。60多年來,中越關系走過了不平坦的道路。其間,既有“同志加兄弟”般的難忘經歷,也有兵戎相見的不幸歲月,而最值得懷念的是新中國成立初期中越關系晴空萬里的美好時光。

                         

                        ■新中國是第一個與越南建交的國家■

                        1945年,越南人民在胡志明領導下發動了“八月革命”,推翻了阮氏封建王朝,建立了越南民主共和國。胡志明當選為國家主席。不久,越南又投入了長達八年之久的抗法斗爭。1950114日,胡志明發表聲明,表示越南民主共和國隨時準備同任何愿意在平等和互相尊重獨立與領土完整的基礎上與越南進行合作的國家建立外交關系。118日,成立不到半年的中華人民共和國與越南民主共和國正式建立了外交關系。新中國是第一個同越南建交的國家。為此,越南把118日作為“外交勝利日”。胡志明委派黃文歡為越南駐中國代表。黃文歡早年追隨胡志明投身革命,能講一口流利的中文,并寫一手漂亮的毛筆字,但從未接觸過外交工作。當時新中國正為第一批駐外大使舉辦培訓班,經周恩來同意,黃文歡也參加了這個培訓班,公開身份是歸國華僑,化名“老蔡”。其真實身份只有外交部副部長李克農一人知道。

                        中方為黃文歡開展工作提供了一切便利條件,并在北京史家胡同為越南提供了一處大使館館舍。除安排黃文歡住在東交民巷六國飯店外,還安排他向毛澤東遞交了委任書。

                        19505月,越南政府指派黃文歡前去參加蘇聯五一國際勞動節慶祝活動,并出席59日捷克斯洛伐克國慶慶典。黃文歡對這樣的外交活動不熟悉,便到莫斯科中國大使館請求幫助。王稼祥大使熱情地接待了他。

                        黃文歡希望王稼祥告訴他去捷克斯洛伐克有什么需要注意的地方,并說他準備了一篇在捷克斯洛伐克國慶慶典上的祝詞,已翻譯成中文,請中國大使館幫助修改一下,并翻譯成法文。王稼祥看了祝詞后說,內容這樣就可以了,不必再作什么修改。中國大使館雖沒有法文特別好的干部,但可以幫助翻譯成法文。接著,王稼祥請黃文歡給大使館里的主要干部作報告,介紹越南的國內情況和抗法斗爭。黃文歡愉快地答應了。散會后,王稼祥還在大使館宴請了黃文歡。就這樣,在中國大使館的幫助下,黃文歡圓滿完成了任務。

                                 在北京通過與其他國家使節的接觸,黃文歡意識到越南政府代表的級別比大使要低,給工作帶來了諸多不便。經請示國內,19501220日,越南政府正式任命黃文歡為駐華特命全權大使。中方為他舉行了呈遞國書的儀式。

                         

                        ■中方向越南派出軍事顧問■

                        194912月底,越南民主共和國主席胡志明派兩名特使,攜帶他的親筆信來到北京,請求中國對越南的抗法斗爭提供經濟、軍事援助。當時毛澤東、周恩來正在蘇聯訪問,劉少奇主持中央日常工作。經請示毛澤東同意后回復越方,希望越方派出更負責的領導同志前來商談。1950130日,胡志明秘密來到北京,劉少奇安排他住在中南海。當晚,劉少奇、朱德等設宴歡迎胡志明,并與他會談。胡志明希望中方向越南提供經濟、軍事援助。劉少奇表示,盡管新中國剛剛解放,一切工作都要從頭做起,任務極其繁重,但我們決心對越南的抗法斗爭給予支援。談到中越建交時,劉少奇說,蘇聯和東歐社會主義國家以及朝鮮、蒙古都已同中國建交,英國也已同中國建交。法國正準備承認中華人民共和國,現在中國與越南建交,會使法國推遲與中國建交,但我們不怕。現在的主要問題是積極支援越南人民的抗法斗爭,使越南人民盡快取得勝利。

                        胡志明表示要去蘇聯會見斯大林和毛澤東,劉少奇立即安排他于23日乘火車前往莫斯科。在蘇聯,根據斯大林的建議,援越抗法的任務將主要由中國承擔。34日,毛澤東、周恩來和胡志明一道離開莫斯科回北京。途中,胡志明向毛澤東問起援越事宜。毛澤東表示,作為兄弟鄰邦,援助越南軍事物資是應該的。胡志明說:“我們更缺少懂得戰略戰術的指揮員,希望中國能派出軍師團營各級軍事顧問,幫助我們訓練部隊和指揮作戰。”毛澤東說:“中國的軍事干部全是土生土長的,你們如實在要的話,也只能是土顧問啊!”胡志明說:“土顧問我們也要。我們相信他們能夠幫助我們打敗法國人。你們不是把美國全力援助的國民黨軍隊都消滅了嗎?”毛澤東希望胡志明同越南人民軍總司令武元甲商議后提出一個具體方案,以便作出最后決定。

                        中共中央研究了援越抗法問題后,毅然決定向越南提供無償援助。毛澤東說:“我們援助越南是完全無償的,沒有任何條件。我看凡是越南需要的,就盡力提供,物資要給,軍事顧問也要派。”

                        作為援越的一個重要步驟,劉少奇選調中央軍委辦公廳主任羅貴波為中共中央的聯絡代表赴越,溝通兩黨之間的關系。劉少奇對羅貴波說:“中央經過仔細考慮,并報告了毛主席,都同意你去完成一項特殊任務,擔任我黨的聯絡代表去越南工作,時間為三個月左右。”羅貴波赴越前,劉少奇再次囑咐他到越南后的工作方式要由越南黨中央決定,行動暫時保密,在適當的時候回國匯報。羅貴波于39日抵達越北越南黨中央駐地。與此同時,中央加緊組建軍事顧問團,選調三野第十兵團政委韋國清為團長。417日,中央軍委下達指示,從二野、三野和四野各選調一個師的全套顧問。423日,中央軍委兩次指示西北、西南、華東、中南軍區和炮兵司令部,增調營以上干部13名。

                        627日,毛澤東、劉少奇、朱德在中南海接見了顧問團師以上顧問和部分團級顧問。毛澤東為顧問團規定了兩大任務:一是幫助越南打勝仗,驅逐法國侵略者;二是幫助組建越南正規軍。他說,不是我要派同志們去越南,是胡志明主席在北京向我要的。誰叫我們革命先勝利呢?那就要幫助人家,這叫國際主義。要發揚國際主義精神,把越南人民的解放事業當成自己的事業來做,要同越南同志搞好團結。要注意,搞不好團結,寧可別做工作。毛澤東強調,你們幫助不是唯一的辦法,要扶植越南走自己的道路。派你們去的地方很艱苦,面臨艱巨的任務,有犧牲的危險,要克服困難。

                        軍事顧問團于19507月下旬正式成立。79名顧問、250名隨員在團長韋國清和副團長梅嘉生、鄧逸凡率領下,于89日由廣西南寧起程,12日到達越軍總部所在地高平省廣淵。

                         

                        ■陳賡參與了邊界戰役的指揮■

                        胡志明從北京回到越北戰區后,立即同羅貴波見面,熱烈歡迎他的到來。胡志明在中央政治局會議上宣布,羅貴波作為正式成員之一參加每周一次的政治局會議。羅貴波每次參加越方政治局會議,都按事先準備好的提綱發言,雙方關系十分融洽。在整個抗法斗爭期間,遇有重大問題,胡志明都直接同毛澤東交換意見。中方總是認真考慮,然后提出建議供越方參考。

                        當時越南北部靠近中國的高平、諒山、老街等省都在法軍的控制之下,因此亟待打通一條交通線,使中國援助的物資能夠順利運到越南。為此,只有發動一次邊界戰役,消滅盤踞在邊界的法軍,才能打通一條從廣西到越南的交通線。應越方請求,中共中央派西南軍區副司令員陳賡到越南,幫助組織和指揮邊界戰役。陳賡于727日抵達越北戰區,胡志明見到他格外高興。

                        在研究作戰計劃時,胡志明說,越南有人主張攻打法軍的高平據點,解放了高平就打通了邊界。陳賡則認為,高平是法軍的一個大據點,越軍尚不習慣打陣地戰,如打高平,肯定會拖長時日,付出較大的犧牲。不如攻打高平和諒山之間的東溪,這里只有300多名法軍,可以迅速取勝。拿下東溪,高平的法軍便陷于孤立,其他地方的法軍會前去救援,我們便可以在敵軍運動的過程中消滅他們。我們的目的是消滅更多的敵軍。敵軍遭到慘重損失后,便會龜縮起來,或者逃竄,我們便取得了在邊界地區的主動。胡志明和越南中央政治局都贊成陳賡的意見。胡志明對陳賡說:“我不是軍事家,不長于此,你看準了做就行。”“你放手指揮,包下這次戰斗的勝利。”陳賡說:“我一定盡自己最大的努力,不過打勝仗主要還靠越南的軍隊和人民。”

                        邊界戰役于1950916日打響,歷時一個多月,殲敵8000多人,打通了中越邊境700多公里的交通線,打破了越南解放區被包圍的態勢。胡志明在一次干部會議上說:“邊界戰役的勝利是無產階級國際主義的勝利。”

                         

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